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If a body contains x number of electron and y number of protons, then the magnitude of charge on the body will be:
1. (x - y) × 1.6 × 10-19 C
2. (x + y) × 1.6 × 10-19 C
3. (y - x) × 1.6 × 10-19 C
4. -(y + x) × 1.6 × 10-19 C

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Correct Answer - Option 3 : (y - x) × 1.6 × 10-19 C

CONCEPT:

Electric Charge

  • It is defined as the intrinsic property of certain fundamental particles like electrons, proton, etc, due to which they produce electric and magnetic effects.
  • Types of electric charge
    1. ​Positive charge: A body having a deficiency of electrons.
    2. ​Negative charge: A body having an excess of electrons.
  • Properties of electric charge
    • Like charges repel and unlike charges attract each other.
    • A charge is a scalar quantity.
    • If a system contains a number of point charges, then the total charge of the system is obtained simply by adding all the charges algebraically.
    • A charge is always quantized.
    • A charge will always remain conserved.
    • A charge is always associated with mass.
    • The unit of charge is the coulomb.


⇒ 1 coulomb = charge on 625 × 1016 electrons

EXPLANATION:

Given x = number of electrons, and y = number of protons

Quantisation of charge:

  • Experimentally it is established that all free charges are integral multiples of a basic unit of charge denoted by e.
  • This basic unit of charge is the charge that an electron or proton carries.
  • Thus charge q on a body is always given by:


⇒ q = ne

Where n = integer and e = 1.6 × 10-19 C (Charge on one electron or one proton)

So the charge on the body due to x number of electrons,

⇒ qe = -x × (1.6 × 10-19 C)

And the charge on the body due to y number of protons,

⇒ qp = y × (1.6 × 10-19 C)

  • If a system contains a number of point charges, then the total charge of the system is obtained simply by adding all the charges algebraically.
  • So the total charge on a body is given as,


⇒ q = qe + qp

⇒ q = (y - x) × 1.6 × 10-19 C

  • Hence, option 3 is correct.

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