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The Round Table Conferences were organized by the British to discuss ____________.
1. Measures to stop Civil Disobedience Movement
2. Constitutional reforms in India
3. Grant of full independence to India
4. Division of Congress and non-Congress parties in India

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Correct Answer - Option 2 : Constitutional reforms in India

The correct answer is Constitutional reforms in India.

  • The three Round Table Conferences of 1930–1932 were a series of peace conferences organized by the British Government and Indian political personalities to discuss constitutional reforms in India.
  • These started in November 1930 and ended in December 1932. Hence option 2 is correct.

  • First Round Table Conference (November 1930-January 1931)
    • The First Round Table Conference was inaugurated by George V on November 12, 1930, in the Royal Gallery House of Lords in London.
    • It was Chaired by the British Prime Minister, Ramsay MacDonald.
    • It was to discuss the Simon Commission but it was totally boycotted by the Indian National Congress.
    • There were fifty-eight political leaders from British India and sixteen delegates from the princely states.
    • Total 74 delegates attended the First Round Table Conference from India. The First Round Table Conference was followed by the second round table congress.
    • In the absence of the Indian National Congress, it was difficult for progress to be made but some advances were made.
    • The conference was adjourned to 2 January 1931.

  • Second Round Table Conference:
    • The Congress was requested to come to a settlement by Sapru, M.R. Jayakar, and V.S. Srinivasa Shastri.
    • After six meetings with Viceroy Lord Irwin, a pact was signed known as the Gandhi-Irwin pact and Gandhiji was appointed as the sole representative of the Congress to the Second Round Table Conference.
    • It was held in London in September 1931.
    • The discussion was not fruitful as Gandhiji could not agree with British Prime Minister Ramsay Mac Donald on his policy of communal representation and refusal of the British Government on the basic Indian demand for freedom.
    • The discussion only led to the passing of the Government of India Act of 1935.
  • Third Round Table Conference:
    • The third and last conference was held on 17 November 1932.
    • It was attended by only forty-six delegates since most of the main political leaders of India were in prison.
    • The Labour Party from Britain and Indian National Congress refused to attend.
    •  In this conference, a college student Chaudhary Rahmat Ali proposed the name of the new land specially carved out from India for the Muslims. The name of this land was Pakistan.
  • Imp Note: B.R. Ambedkar and Tej Bahadur Sapru took part in all the Three Round Table Conferences.

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