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In which generation of computers, transistors were used ?
1. First
2. Second 
3. Third 
4. Fourth

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Correct Answer - Option 2 : Second 

The correct answer is Second.

  • Second Generation(1955-1964):
    • The computer made in the second generation was completely based upon transistors.
    • Transistors replaced vacuum tubes in computers.
    • It was invented at Bell Labs by Walter H. Brattain (1902-1987), John Bardeen (1908-1991), and William B. Shockley (1910-1989) in 1947.
    • In the computers of the second generation, punched cards and printouts were used for inputs and outputs.
    • The TX-0 was the first computer that used transistors, It was released in 1956.
    • These second-generation machines were used for a wide variety of business and scientific jobs and used high-level programming and assembly languages such as FORTRAN (Formula Translator) and COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language).
    • The second-generation computers had several features:
      • ​Computers made in the second generation used transistors that made them more reliable, smaller in size, faster in speed, more energy-efficient, and cheaper compared to the first generation of computers.
      • They contain magnetic storage disks and magnetic core memory.
      • They used high-level languages such as FORTRAN and COBOL and allowed communication with the help of a telephone line.
      • As compared to the first generation of computers, the data processing time reduced from milliseconds to microseconds.

  • First Generation(1942-1955): 
    • The first-generation computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory.
    • They were often enormous and taking up the entire room.
    •  First-generation computers relied on machine language.
    • They were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions.
    •  The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation computing devices.
  • Third Generation(1964-1975):
    • The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers.
    • Transistors were miniaturized and placed on Silicon chips called semiconductors.
    • Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third-generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system.
    •  It allowed the device to run many different applications at one time.
  • Fourth Generation(1971- up to till now):
    • The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip.
    • The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located all the components of the computer.
    • From the central processing unit and memory to input/output controls on a single chip.
    • Fourth-generation computers also saw the development of GUIs, the mouse, and handheld devices.

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