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Which of the following plant hormones controls fruit ripening?
1. Ethylene
2. Zeatin
3. Auxins
4. Gibberellic acid

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Correct Answer - Option 1 : Ethylene

The correct answer is Ethylene.

  • Ethylene is known as the natural fruit-ripening hormone.
  • Ripening is the process by which fruits attain their desirable flavour, quality, colour, palatable nature.
    • Ripening is associated with a change in composition i.e. conversion of starch to sugar.
    • During ripening enzymatic breakdown and hydrolysis (reaction with water) of polysaccharides like starch takes place.
    • Starch breaks down into smaller molecules like fructose, glucose, sucrose etc.

 

  • Zeatin promotes the growth of lateral buds and when sprayed on meristems stimulates cell division to produce bushier plants.
  • Auxin regulates growth, particularly by stimulating cell elongation in stems.
  • Gibberellic acid (GA) is a plant hormone that stimulates plant growth and development.

  • For the artificially ripening of the fruits, Calcium Carbide (CaC2) is used.
    • In artificial ripening, unlike natural ripening, a ripening agent is used to promote the ripening of fruits and to induce a colour change.
    • Unsaturated hydrocarbons such as acetyleneethylene etc. can promote ripening and induce colour changes.
    • When Calcium Carbide reacts with water, it produces acetylene gas and quickens the ripening process.
    • Reaction- CaC2 + 2H2O → C2H2 + Ca (OH)

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