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The hydraulic machines which converts the mechanical energy into hydraulic energy are knows as
1. Stator
2. Turbine
3. Motor
4. Pump

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Correct Answer - Option 4 : Pump



  • The hydraulic machines which convert the mechanical energy into hydraulic energy are called pumps.
  • If the mechanical energy is converted into pressure energy by means of the centrifugal force acting on the fluid, the hydraulic machine is called a centrifugal pump.

Centrifugal pumps

Reciprocating pumps

The discharge is continuous and smooth

The discharge is fluctuating and pulsating

It can handle a large quantity of liquid with low pressure

It handles a small quantity of liquid only with high pressure

It can be used for lifting highly viscous liquids

It is used only for lifting pure or less viscous liquids

It is used for large discharge through smaller heads

It is meant for a small discharge and high heads

The cost of a centrifugal pump is less as compared to a reciprocating pump

The cost of a reciprocating pump is approximately four times the cost of a centrifugal pump

The Centrifugal pump runs at high speed. They can be coupled to an electric motor

It runs at a low speed. Speed is limited due to consideration of separation and cavitation

The operation of a centrifugal pump is smooth and without much noise. The maintenance cost is low

The operation of a reciprocating pump is complicated and with much noise. The maintenance cost is high.

It requires a smaller floor area and the installation cost is low

It requires a larger floor area and installation cost is high

Efficiency is high

Efficiency is low

Hydraulic turbines:

Hydraulic turbines may be considered as hydraulic motors or prime movers of a water–power development, which convert water energy (hydropower) into mechanical energy (shaft power).

The shaft power developed is used in running electricity generators directly coupled to the shaft of the turbine, thus producing electrical power.

The hydraulic turbine is a rotary machine actuated by the impulse and/or reaction of a water current attacking the rotor (called the runner), which consists of a series of buckets or curved vanes or blades.

Classification of turbines on the basis of energy at inlet:

1. Impulse turbine: 

This has only kinetic energy at the inlet.

E.g- Pelton wheel.

2. Reaction turbine:

This has kinetic energy and pressure energy both at the inlet.

E.g- Francis turbine, Propeller turbine, Kaplan turbine, Thomson turbine

Nozzle: It is a pipe or tube of varying cross-sections. It is generally used to control the pressure or rate of flow.
Boiler: It is a closed vessel in which steam is produced from water by the combustion of fuel.

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