Correct Answer - Option 3 : Odisha
India is endowed with fairly abundant resources of iron ore.
- It has the largest reserve of iron ore in Asia.
- The two main types of ore found in our country are haematite and magnetite.
- It has great demand in the international market due to its superior quality.
- The iron ore mines occur in close proximity to the coalfields in the north-eastern plateau region of the country which adds to their advantage.
- About 95 per cent of total reserves of iron ore is located in the States of Orissa, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Goa, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
Orissa is the largest producer of Iron ore in India.
- Orissa accounts for over half of India’s iron ore production produced 120 million tonnes during the 2019/2020 year.
Precambrian iron ores of the Singhbhum-North Orissa region occur in eastern India as part of the Iron Ore Group (IOG) within the broad horseshoe-shaped synclinorium.
More than 50% of Indian iron ore reserves occur in this region.
- In Odisha, iron ore occurs in a series of hill ranges in Sundergarh, Mayurbhanj and Jhar.
- The important mines are Gurumahisani, Sulaipet, Badampahar (Mayurbhaj), Kiruburu (Kendujhar) and Bonai (Sundergarh).
Thus, we can conclude that India's leading state that produces iron ore is Orissa. It accounts for more than 55% of the total production followed by Chhattisgarh producing almost 17%. This is followed by Karnataka and Jharkhand producing 14% and 11% respectively.
- Similar to hill ranges, Jharkhand has some of the oldest iron ore mines and most of the iron and steel plants are located around them.
- Most of the important mines such as Noamundi and Gua are located in Poorbi and Pashchimi Singhbhum districts.
- This belt further extends to Durg, Dantewara and Bailadila.
- Dalli and Rajhara in Durg are the important mines of iron ore in the country.
- In Karnataka, iron ore deposits occur in the Sandur -Hospet area of Ballari district, Baba Budan hills and Kudremukh in Chikkamagaluru district and parts of Shivamogga, Chitradurga and Tumakuru districts.
- The districts of Chandrapur, Bhandara and Ratnagiri in Maharashtra, Karimnagar and Warangal district of Telangana, Kurnool, Cuddapah and Anantapur districts of Andhra Pradesh, Salem and Nilgiris districts of Tamil Nadu are other iron mining regions.
Goa has also emerged as an important producer of iron ore.