Correct Answer - Option 4 : Counselling
Counselling is an interactive learning process in which the counsellor (sometimes termed therapist), helps the counsellees (be they individuals, families, groups or institutions) to understand the cause(s) of difficulties and guides them to sort out issues and reach decisions. The approach in counselling is holistic, addressing social, cultural, economic and emotional issues. Counselling can be sought at any time in life, although many people reach out only in times of change or crisis.
Some of the major purposes of counselling generally accepted by counsellors are given below:
Achievement of positive mental health
- An individual is said to have positive mental health when he/she is able to relate meaningfully with others and lead a fulfilling life. He/she is able to love and be loved. One purpose of counselling is to help the individual to attain this state.
- Another purpose of counselling is to help the individual to come out of a difficult situation or problem. It must be remembered that the individual is only assisted and finds his/her own solution for the problems.
Counselling for decision-making
- Ability to make right and timely decisions is crucial for success in life. One major goal of counselling is to make the individual capable of making independent decisions. Counsellor may assist the individual by providing necessary information or clarifying the counselee’s goals, etc. but the decision should be taken by the counselee himself/herself.
Improving personal effectiveness
- An effective person is one who is able to control impulses, think in creative ways and has the competence to recognize, define and solve problems. It can be seen that these different goals are not exclusive. These are all interdependent and overlapping.
Helping to change
- For development, change is always necessary. Counselling helps individuals to make changes in their attitudes, perceptions or personality.
- Another aim of counselling is to help in modifying the behaviour. Removal of undesirable behaviour or self-defeating behaviour and learning desirable behaviour is considered necessary for attaining effectiveness and good adjustment. Behaviourally oriented counsellors are the chief proponents of this view.
Hence, 1 : 1 guidance for one’s personal problem is called counselling.