Correct Answer - Option 2 : Lord Ripon
The correct solution is Lord Ripon.
The Viceroy Lord Ripon has been called as 'Father of Local Self-Government' in India.
- He formulated the local self-government and laid the foundations of representative institutions in India.
- William Gladstone appointed Lord Ripon as the Viceroy of India in 1880.
- His first act was the introduction of the IIberlt Bill which would have granted Indians more legal rights including the right of Indian judges to judge Europeans in court.
- In Lord Ripon's tenure,the Local self-Government resolution was passed.
- It was not an Act but a resolution by the government in the year 1882.
- The Financial liberalization that started under Lord Mayo (1869-1872) was continued by Lord Ripon.
- The resolution helped to establish Local Boards with non-Official members at the provincial level and it was the basis of modern-day municipalities in this country.
- The Factory Act: The first factory was passed by Lord Ripon. The act prohibited the working of children below seven years and a limited number of working hours for children below 12 years.
- Lord Ripon appointed an education commissioner under the chairmanship of Sir William Hunter.
- He also increased age requirement for civil services from 18 years to 21 years which were reduced by Lord Lytton (1876-1880) from 21 years to 18 years.
- In January 1899 Lord Curzon was appointed Viceroy of India.
- He was reappointed Governor-General in August 1904, he presided over the 1905 partition of Bengal.
- He became the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs in 1919.
- MacDonnell Commission was appointed by Lord Curzon in 1901 and it submitted its report in the same year.
- Lord Canning, One of his first acts was to pass the Hindu Widows’ Remarriage Act, 1856 (passed on July 16, 1856) which was drafted by his predecessor Lord Dalhousie.
- Lytton’s tenure as viceroy was marked by ruthlessness in both domestic and foreign affairs.
- Lord Lytton served as the Ambassador to France from 1887 to 1891.