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The object of war is durable peace. Therefore the soldiers are the best peace makers. This involves the fallacy of 
1. Petitio Principii
2. Four terms
3. Illicit generalizations
4. Division

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Correct Answer - Option 1 : Petitio Principii

The correct answer is Petitio Principii.

  • Petitio Principii 
    • It is also called 'Begging the Question'.
    • In this fallacy, the person assumes the conclusion is true without any proof supporting it.
    • Example: Wine cannot be injurious to health, for if it had been so doctors would not have prescribed it.​
      • This example, says that Wine can be consumed as it doesn't have any proof of ill effects on health.

  • Four Terms:
    • Quaternion Terminorum is a Latin term meaning Fallacy of four terms.
    • This fallacy occurs when a syllogism has 4 terms rather than 3.
    • It includes statistical syllogism, hypothetical syllogism, and categorical syllogism.
    • Example: All men are robots, All robots are cars, All cars are buses.
      • In this example, there are four terms: Men, Robots, Cars, and Buses.
        • This makes the statement invalid as it requires one term common to both premises.
  • Division: 
    • It is a reverse of the Fallacy of Composition.
    • In this fallacy, what is true about whole parts of an object, then it is true for the parts of the whole.
    • Example: The boys in my neighbourhood like to play cricket. So my new neighbour, John, will like to play cricket with them.
  • Illicit generalization:
    • It is also called the Hasty or Overgeneralization Fallacy.
    • In this fallacy, the person assumes the conclusion is true based on small evidence.
    • Example: Recently, some beggars in the street path looted a man. All beggars are just as clever behind innocent faces.
      • This example shows that based on one piece of evidence the person concludes all beggars as thieves and criminals.
      • Such type of fallacy must be avoided as it will be dangerous.

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