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Arrange the following international initiatives towards sustainable development in sequential order (chronological) and select the correct answer using the code given below

a. The Brundtland Commission

b. Stockholm Conference

c. UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development

d. Rio+20 or Rio Earth Summit


1. b a c d
2. b c d a 
3. c a b d
4. b d a c 

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Correct Answer - Option 1 : b a c d

The correct answer is b a c d.

  • Stockholm Conference 1972
    • In 1972, the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (UNCHE) was convened to address issues concerning the environment and sustainable development.
    • UNCHE, also known as the Stockholm Conference, linked environmental protection with sustainable development.
    • The Conference was held on 5 June 1972.
    • The participants adopted a series of principles for sound management of the environment including the Stockholm Declaration and Action Plan for the Human Environment and several resolutions.
    • The Stockholm Declaration, which contained 26 principles, placed environmental issues at the forefront of international concerns and marked the start of a dialogue between industrialized and developing countries on the link between economic growth, the pollution of the air, water, and oceans, and the well-being of people around the world. 
    • The Action Plan contained three main categories: 
      1. Global Environmental Assessment Program (watch plan)
      2. Environmental management activities;
      3. International measures to support assessment and management activities carried out at the national and international levels.
    • One of the major results of the Stockholm conference was the creation of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
  • The Brundtland Commission 1987
    • Formally called:  Our Common Future: Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development issued in 1987 which give the concept of Sustainable Development.
    • The Brundtland Commission’s characterization of ‘sustainable development is the development that satisfies the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
    • Gro Harlem Brundtland, the former Prime Minister of Norway and was chosen as the head of the commission.
    • The Brundtland Commission officially dissolved in December 1987 after releasing Our Common Future, also known as the Brundtland Report, in October 1987.
  • UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development
    • The United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014) sought to mobilize the educational resources of the world to help create a more sustainable future.
    • Many paths to sustainability (e.g. sustainable agriculture and forestry, research and technology transfer, finance, sustainable production, and consumption) exist and are mentioned in the 40 chapters of Agenda 21, the official document of the 1992 Earth Summit.
    • Education is one of these paths. Education alone cannot achieve a more sustainable future; however, without education and learning for sustainable development, we will not be able to reach that goal.
    • The overall goal of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) was to integrate the principles, values, and practices of sustainable development into all aspects of education and learning.
    • Functions
      • catalyze new partnerships with the private sector, with youth, and with media groups
      • encourage monitoring and evaluation
      • encourage the development of a research agenda and serve as a forum for relevant research on Education for Sustainable Development
      • share good ESD practices
      • link Member States that have put in place ESD curricula, policies, research, etc. with those Member States that are requesting help
  • Rio+20 or Rio Earth Summit
    • The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development - or Rio+20 - took place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil on 20-22 June 2012.
    • It resulted in a focused political outcome document that contains clear and practical measures for implementing sustainable development.
    • In Rio, Member States decided to launch a process to develop a set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which will build upon the Millennium Development Goals and converge with the post-2015 development agenda.
    • The Conference also adopted ground-breaking guidelines on green economy policies.
    • The conference focused on two themes:
      1. a green economy in the context of sustainable development poverty eradication
      2. the institutional framework for sustainable development.

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