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Wine cannot be injurious to health, for if it had been so doctors would not have prescribed it. It involves the fallacy of 
1. Four terms
2. Ignoratio elenchi
3. Petito principii
4. Illicit generalization

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Correct Answer - Option 4 : Illicit generalization

The correct answer is Illicit generalization.

  • Illicit generalization:
    • It is also called the Hasty or Overgeneralization Fallacy.
    • In this fallacy, the person assumes the conclusion is true based on small evidence.
    • Example: Recently, some beggars in the street path looted a man. All beggars are just as clever behind innocent faces.
      • This example shows that based on one piece of evidence the person concludes all beggars as thieves and criminals.
      • Such type of fallacy must be avoided as it will be dangerous.
    • Example: Wine cannot be injurious to health, for if it had been so doctors would not have prescribed it.
      • ​This example, says that Wine can be consumed as it doesn't have any proof of ill effects on health.

  • Four Terms:
    • Quaternion Terminorum is a Latin term meaning Fallacy of four terms.
    • This fallacy occurs when a syllogism has 4 terms rather than 3.
    • It includes statistical syllogism, hypothetical syllogism, and categorical syllogism.
    • Example: All men are robots, All robots are cars, All cars are buses.
      • In this example, there are four terms: Men, Robots, Cars, and Buses.
        • This makes the statement invalid as it requires one term common to both premises.
  • Petitio Principii 
    • It is also called 'Begging the Question'.
    • In this fallacy, the person assumes the conclusion is true without any proof supporting it.
  • Ignoratio Elenchi:
    • It is also called the fallacy of Irrelevant Conclusion.
    • This fallacy reaches a conclusion but misses the point in question.
    • Example: Elephants can't be so dangerous to humans, because they are so calm and look so cute.

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