Correct Answer - Option 2 : Theory of cognitive development
Jean Piaget was a swiss psychologist who is well renowned for his work in child development. He proposed the 'Theory of Cognitive Development' under the cognitive constructivist approach. His theory is basically divided into two parts:
- The first part includes the stages of development of children at different levels of ages, while the second part describes the development of cognitive abilities at different ages i.e., mental ability and processes that are brain-based skills.
- According to Piaget, children should be provided with real-world problems so that they can construct and build up their own concepts by using their cognitive abilities to analyze and comprehend complex phenomena.
Piaget's theory of cognitive development has a central concept known as adaptation which can be understood as follows:
- Just as human beings adapt to the environment, their thinking also adapts to the changes they experience. These changes lead to changes in mental schemes.
- Two basic processes are involved in adaptation: assimilation and accommodation.
- Assimilation takes place when people try to understand something new by fitting it into what they already know.
For example, children know the animal with four legs known as a dog but after seeing a cat they will also call him a dog as he also has a tail and four legs. The fitting of new experience into the already existing scheme is called Assimilation.
- The modification of existing schemes (and the development of new ones) in order to make sense of new experiences is called accommodation.
For example, the child will keep calling a cat a "dog" until someone corrects him and made him understand the difference between a cat and a dog. He will now have a different scheme for understanding cats.
Thus, it is clear that the process of Assimilation and Accommodation is related to the theory of cognitive development.
|Theory of moral development
Lawrence Kohlberg, an American psychologist, has propounded the 'Theory of Moral Development.
- He has systematically studied moral development in his theory that is categorized into six culturally universal stages.
|Social learning theory
Bandura’s Social Learning Theory of Personality is based on the premise that human behavior is largely acquired and that the principles of learning are sufficient to account for the development and maintenance of behavior.
|Theory of motivation
- It includes the motivational cycle which is the circular movement of an individual or an organism to achieve his desire or goal.
- There are four phases of the motivational cycle namely, need, drive, incentive, and reward.