Correct Answer - Option 3 : Skinner
Programmed Learning is an innovative step whose goal is the individualization of instruction. It consists of a planned sequence of learning activities for achieving mastery.
Programmed learning emerged out of the research conducted by B.F. Skinner on operant conditioning.
- The real landmark in the development of programmed learning was the work of B.F. Skinner.
- After conducting extensive research on rats and pigeons, Skinner developed a theory of learning called operant conditioning.
- According to operant conditioning theory, behavior is learned only when it is immediately reinforced, that is when it is followed by some pleasurable event such as food, praise, or attention.
- Therefore, the task of the programmer is to provide contingencies of reinforcement so that the correct responses to the questions presented are immediately rewarded and the incorrect responses are not Skinner opposed punishment for wrong responses and recommended that punishment should be kept minimum so that there was no danger of developing a negative attitude towards the learning activity.
- By applying the principles of operant conditioning in teaching human beings, Skinner developed an instructional model which is popularly known as programmed instruction.
- The term 'programmed' is used for arranging learning experiences or events in the most logical and psychological sequence so that the student gets maximum benefit from instruction.
Hence, it could be concluded that Programmed Learning is based on Skinner's theory of learning.
Theory of Cognitive Development
|Cognitive structures are the basic mental patterns people use to process any information.
||Theory of Moral Development
Kohlberg has made a systematic study of moral development in his theory that is categorized into 3 levels and 6 stages.
||Social learning theory
||Learning takes place through indirect sources, like watching or hearing others.