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An infant of below 15 months age is at what stage of language development ?
1. intermediate fluency
2. speech emergence
3. complex utterance.
4. pre-production stage

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Correct Answer - Option 4 : pre-production stage

Language development is the process through which a person develops and learns a language throughout infancy and childhood, which typically refers to a person’s first or primary language. 

The Five Stages of Second Language Acquisition:
Stage I: Pre-Production

  • This stage is also referred to as the “silent period” because students tend to be non-verbal. However, they may become frustrated or overwhelmed by hearing a foreign language all day.
  • Length of stage: Zero to six months
  • What can you do? Use gestures, hand movements, and visuals when speaking to students in this stage. Make sure to pair students with a buddy for peer learning opportunities.  

Stage II: Early Production

  • During this stage, language and comprehension are limited. Children produce one- to two-word phrases and may repeat commonly used social language.
  • Length of stage: Six months to a year
  • What can you do? Ask students yes or no questions and accept one or two-word responses. Continue to build vocabulary with the use of pictures.

Stage III: Speech Emergence

  • Students demonstrate increased language development as they communicate in simple sentences, sound out stories phonetically, and understand easy picture books. At this stage, Children can complete tasks such as using a graphic organizer with a word bank and matching vocabulary words with their definitions.
  • Length of stage: One to three years
  • What can you do? Introduce academic vocabulary and model how to use it in a sentence. Provide fill-in-the-blank options for assignments. Share a dialogue.
  • Journal with students to communicate regularly and offer written word practice.

Stage IV: Intermediate Fluency

  • Children use more complex language in oral and written form. Nonetheless, they may use incorrect grammar or verb tenses. Children begin to think in the new language, rather than translating from their native language.
  • Length of stage:  Three to five years
  • What can you do? Introduce students to idioms and colloquialisms. Give children a larger role in cooperative learning activities.

Stage V: Advanced Fluency

  • Children reach near-native proficiency and produce highly accurate language. They also exhibit high levels of comprehension, but may not understand all academic language.
  • Length of stage: It takes four to ten years to achieve cognitive academic language proficiency in a second language.
  • What can you do? Continue using visuals to assist with content-specific language. Offer challenging activities, such as identifying synonyms and antonyms, in order to expand vocabulary knowledge.  

An infant below 15 months of age is at the Pre-Production stage of language development.

Hence, we can conclude that the right answer to this question is the pre-production stage.

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