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Property of material which enables it to absorb energy without rupture


1.

Malleability


2. Toughness
3. Hardness
4. Ductility

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Correct Answer - Option 2 : Toughness

Explanation:

Malleability: 

  • It is the property by virtue of which a material may be hammered or rolled into thin sheets without rupture. This property generally increases with the increase of temperature.
  • Malleability is the ability of a metal to exhibit large deformation or plastic response when being subjected to compressive force.
  • Lead, soft steel, wrought iron, copper, and aluminum are some materials in order of diminishing malleability.

Toughness:

  • Toughness is defined as the ability of the material to absorb energy before fracture takes place.
  • Tough materials have the ability to bend, twist or stretch before failure takes place.
  • Toughness is measured by a quantity called modulus of toughness. Modulus of toughness is the total area under the stress-strain curve in a tension test.

Hardness:

  • Hardness is a measure of the resistance to localized plastic deformation induced by either mechanical indentation or abrasion. 
  • The ability of a material to resist Indentation.

Ductility:

  • It is the property of the material that enables it to be drawn out or elongated to an appreciable extent before rupture occurs.
  • Ductility is the ability of a metal to exhibit large deformation or plastic response when being subjected to tensile force.
  • The percentage elongation or percentage reduction in the area before rupture of a test specimen is the measure of ductility. Normally if percentage elongation exceeds 15% the material is ductile and if it is less than 5% the material is brittle.
  • Lead, copper, aluminum, mild steel are typical ductile materials.
  • Property of a material which permits to be drawn out longitudinally to a reduced section, under the action of Tensile Force.

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