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Which Constitutional Amendments bifurcated the Combined National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes into two separate bodies?
1. 42nd Amendment
2. 44th Amendment
3. 89th Amendment
4. 93rd Amendment

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Correct Answer - Option 3 : 89th Amendment

The correct answer is 89th Amendment.

  • The 89th Constitutional Amendments bifurcated the Combined National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes into two separate bodies.
  • The establishment of the National Commission for Scheduled Castes has been done under Article 338.
  • The National Commission for Scheduled Castes is a constitutional body while the other commissions are statutory commissions that have been established by the Act of Parliament.
  • The National Scheduled Tribes Commission has come into existence since 2004.
  • The Chairman of the National Commission for Scheduled Castes is appointed by the President of India.
  • At present, Nand Kumar Sai is the President of the National Scheduled Tribe Commission.

  • The 42nd amendment put restrictions on the review powers of the Judiciary. The amendment made changes to the Preamble, to the seventh schedule of the Constitution, and 53 articles of the constitution.
    • Due to these voluminous changes in the Constitution, the 42nd amendment was called a mini-constitution.
    • This amendment made the use of the power fundamental duties by the people of India to the nation.
  • The Constitution (45th Amendment) Bill, re-numbered as the 44th Amendment came into force on April 30, 1979, when the President gave his assent.
    • The Act removes major distortions in the Constitution introduced during the Emergency. The duration of the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies has been reduced from six to five years.
    • The Right to Property ceases to be a Fundamental Right and becomes only a legal right according to the Constitution 44th Amendment.
    • It provides safeguards against future subversion of the Constitution for establishing an authoritarian regime.
      It contains provisions that are designed to make it impossible to impose the kind of emergency the country had experienced for 19 months.
  • The Constitutional 93rd amendment, 2006 added clause (5) in Article 15 which stated-nothing shall prevent the State from making any special provision, by law, for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or for the Scheduled Castes or the Scheduled Tribes in so far as such special provisions relate to their admission to educational institutions including private educational institutions.

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