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Independent elastic constants for a homogeneous & elastic material obeying Hooke’s law are: 


Young’s Modulus 

2. Shear modulus
3. Bulk modulus
4. All of the above

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Correct Answer - Option 4 : All of the above

The correct answer is option 4) i.e. All of the above.


  • Types of Modulus of elasticity:​​

Young's Modulus (Y)

Bulk modulus (B)

Shear Modulus (G)

Young's modulus a modulus of elasticity, applicable to the stretching of wire, etc., equal to the ratio of the applied load per unit area of the cross-section to the increase in length per unit length.

The ratio of hydrostatic stress to the volumetric strain within the elastic range is called the bulk modulus.

The ratio of shear stress and shear strain is called shear modulus. It is also called the Modulus of rigidity.

\(Y = \frac{Fl}{A\Delta l }\)

\(B =\frac{PV}{\Delta V}\)

\(G = \frac{{shear \, stress}}{{shear\;strain}} = \frac{{\frac{F}{A}}}{\theta }\)


  • The isotropic, homogeneous and elastic material obeying Hooke's law has 3 constants Young's modulus, shear modulus and bulk modulus.

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