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Which of the following were the causes of the failure of the Swarajya Party?

(a) Divide and rule policy of the British

(b) Lack of discipline in the party

(c) Lack of people's support

(d) Split in Swaraj Party.

1. (a) and (c) only
2. (b) and (d) only
3. (c) and (d) only
4. (a), (b), (c) and (d)

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Correct Answer - Option 4 : (a), (b), (c) and (d)

The Correct Answer is a, b, c, d.

  • Gandhiji's stopped the Non-Cooperation Movement in the middle due to the Violent Incident of Chauri Chaura.
  •  After Gandhi’s arrest (March 1922), there was disintegration, disorganisation and demoralisation among nationalist ranks. A debate started among Congressmen on what to do during the transition period, i.e., the passive phase of the movement.
  • One section led by C.R. Das, Motilal Nehru and Ajmal Khan wanted an end to the boycott of legislative councils so that the nationalists could enter them to expose the basic weaknesses of these assemblies and use these councils as an arena of political struggle to arouse popular enthusiasm. They wanted, in other words, to ‘end or mend’ these councils, i.e., if the government did not respond to the nationalists’ demands, then they would obstruct the working of these councils.
  • Those advocating entry into legislative councils came to be known as the ‘Swarajists’, while the other school of the thought led by C. Rajagopalachari, Vallabhbhai Patel, Rajendra Prasad and M.A. Ansari came to be known as the ‘Nochangers’.
  • The ‘No-changers’ opposed council entry, advocated concentration on constructive work, and continuation of boycott and non-cooperation, and quiet preparation for the resumption of the suspended civil disobedience programme.
  • The differences over the question of council entry between the two schools of thought resulted in the defeat of the Swarajists’ proposal of ‘ending or mending’ the councils at the Gaya session of the Congress (December 1922).
  • C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru resigned from the presidentship and secretaryship respectively of the Congress and announced the formation of the Congress-Khilafat Swarajya Party or simply Swarajist Party, with C.R. Das as the president and Motilal Nehru as one of the secretaries.
  • The Swarajists had their reasons for advocating entry into the councils.
  1. Entering the councils would not negate the noncooperation programme; in fact, it would be like carrying on the movement through other means opening a new front.
  2. In a time of political vacuum, council work would serve to enthuse the masses and keep up their morale. The entry of nationalists would deter the government from stuffing the councils with undesirable elements that may be used to provide legitimacy to government measures.
  3.  The councils could be used as an arena of political struggle; there was no intention to use the councils as organs for the gradual transformation of colonial rule.
  • The drawbacks of the swarajist were
  1. The Swarajists lacked the policy to coordinate their militancy inside legislatures with the mass struggle outside. They relied totally on newspaper reporting to communicate with the public.
  2. An obstructionist strategy had its limitations.
  3. They could not carry on with their coalition partners very far because of conflicting ideas, which further limited their effectiveness.
  4. They failed to resist the perks and privileges of power and office.
  5. They failed to support the peasants’ cause in Bengal and lost support among Muslim members who were pro-peasant.
  6. After the death of C.R.Das, the party merged with congress again.

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