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Kohlberg’s theory is based on
1. physical development
2. cognitive development
3. social development
4. None of the above

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Correct Answer - Option 4 : None of the above

Lawrence Kohlberg, an American psychologist, has propounded the 'Theory of Moral Development.

  • He has made a systematic study of moral development in his theory that is categorized into 3 levels and 6 stages. 
  • He created moral development theory by posing moral dilemmas to groups of children as well as adolescents and adults.
  • According to Kohlberg moral dilemma is the thinking process involved in judgments about questions of right & wrong. 

Kohlberg's stages of moral development:

Pre-conventional morality
  • It is the first stage of moral development and lasts until approximately age 9.
  • At the pre-conventional level children don’t have a personal code of morality, and instead moral decisions are shaped by the standards of adults and the consequences of following or breaking their rules.
  • It is on the basis of existing social norms.
  • For example, if an action leads to punishment is must be bad, and if it leads to a reward is must be good.
Conventional morality
  • It is the second stage of moral development and is characterized by an acceptance of social rules concerning right and wrong.
  • At the conventional level (most adolescents and adults), begin to internalize the moral standards of their adult role models.
  • Authority is internalized but not questioned, and reasoning is based on the norms of the group to which the person belongs.
Post-conventional morality
  • The third stage of moral development, and is characterized by an individuals’ understanding of universal ethical principles.
  • These are abstract and ill-defined but might include: the preservation of life at all costs, and the importance of human dignity.
  • Individual judgment is based on self-chosen principles, and moral reasoning is based on individual rights and justice.
  • According to Kohlberg this level of moral reasoning is as far as most people get.


Hence, it could be concluded that Kohlberg’s theory is based on moral development, so none of the above is the correct answer.

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