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Which learning theory emphasises learning from whole to part?
1. Classical conditioning
2. Insightful learning
3. Operant conditioning
4. Trial and Error

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Correct Answer - Option 2 : Insightful learning

German psychologist Wertheimer, Kohler, Koffka, and Lewin have studied the nature of perception and are the leaders of gestalt psychology. Wertheimer considered the father of gestalt psychology.

  • "Gestalt" is a German noun for which there is no English word equivalent. The nearest English translation of "Gestalt" is "configuration" or more simply "an organized whole". Gestalt psychologists consider the process of learning as a gestalt - an organized whole.
  • The ‘Insight Theory of Learning’ or ‘Theory of Insightful learning’ is proposed by Wolfgang Kohler, a Gestalt theorist. In his theory, he has proposed the term ‘Insight’ that doesn't take place with trial & error, rather than it is a sudden reorganization of experience.

Insightful learning or gestalt theory of learning:

  • It is primarily concerned with the nature of perception. According to it, an individual perceives the thing as a whole.
  • A thing is perceived as a relationship within a field that includes the thing and its complex background incorporating their previous experiences and purposes.
  • While learning, a learner always perceives the situation as a whole and after seeing and evaluating the different relationships intelligently takes a proper decision.
  • The child first perceives the situation as a whole and then evaluates its parts that imply that they first learn anything as a whole and then learn their part.
  • For example, children in their initial stage of learning, recognize all types of birds saying simply "birds" and afterward they start to distinguish between different types of birds i.e., sparrow, parrot, eagle, etc.

Hence, it could be concluded that insightful learning theory emphasizes learning from whole to part.

    Theory

    Propounder

    Main Idea

    Trial and Error Theory​

     

    E.L.Thorndike

     

    Learning is the result of associations forming between stimulus and responses.

    Theory of Operant Conditioning

    B. F. Skinner

     

    Theory implies the idea that learning takes place through rewarding a certain behavior or withholding reward for undesirable behavior.

    Theory of classical conditioning

    Ivan Pavlov

     

    Theory emphasizes that behavior is learned by a repetitive association between the response and the stimulus.

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