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The sect which believed in abiding nature of destiny
1. Ajivakas
2. Charvak
3. Buddhism
4. Jainism

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Correct Answer - Option 1 : Ajivakas

The correct answer is Ajivika.

  • Ajivika is one of the nastika of heterodox schools of Indian philosophy.
    • Purportedly founded in the 5th century BCE by Makkhali Gosala, it was a sramaṇa movement and a major rival of Vedic religion, early Buddhism, and Jainism.
    • Original scriptures of the Ajivika school of philosophy may once have existed, but these are currently unavailable and probably lost.
    • Their theories are extracted from mentions of Ajivikas in the secondary sources of ancient Indian literature.
    • The Ajivikas school is known for its Niyati doctrine of absolute determinism, the premise that there is no free will, that everything that has happened, is happening, and will happen is entirely preordained and a function of cosmic principles.

  • Charvak is an ancient school of Indian materialism.
    • Charvaka holds direct perception, empiricism, and conditional inference as proper sources of knowledge embraces philosophical skepticism and rejects ritualism and supernaturalism.
    • Brihaspati is traditionally referred to as the founder of Charvaka or Lokāyata philosophy.
    • One of the widely studied principles of Charvaka philosophy was its rejection of inference as a means to establish valid, universal knowledge, and metaphysical truths.
    • In other words, the Charvaka epistemology states that whenever one infers a truth from a set of observations or truths, one must acknowledge doubt; inferred knowledge is conditional.
    • Charvaka is categorized as a heterodox school of Indian philosophy.
    • It is considered an example of atheistic schools in the Hindu tradition
  • Buddhism is a faith that was founded by Siddhartha Gautama (the Buddha) more than 2,500 years ago in India.
    • With about 470 million followers, scholars consider Buddhism one of the major world religions.
    • The religion’s founder, Buddha, is considered an extraordinary man, but not a god.
    • The word Buddha means enlightened.
  • Jainism is a religion of self-help. There are no gods or spiritual beings that will help human beings.
    • The three guiding principles of Jainism, the 'three jewels', are right belief, right knowledge, and right conduct.
    • The supreme principle of Jain living is non-violence.

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