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In which one of the following places were amendments to the Kyoto Protocol adopted?
1. Abu Dhabi
2. Riyadh
3. Doha
4. Muscat

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Correct Answer - Option 3 : Doha

Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Doha.

Kyoto Protocol:

  • The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty that extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), has its emergence from COP 3.
  • The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005.
  • There are currently 192 parties (Canada withdrew from the protocol, effective December 2012).
  • The parties meet to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part two) it is extremely likely that human-made CO2 emissions have predominantly caused it.

Key mechanism:

  • Emission trading (carbon market): Under this mechanism, an Annex I Party may transfer Kyoto units to or acquire units from another Annex I Party. Emissions trading does not affect the total assigned amount of Annex I Parties collectively; rather, it re-distributes the assigned amount among them.
  • Clean development mechanism (CDM): The CDM is also a project-based mechanism. CDM credits may be generated from emission reduction projects or from afforestation and reforestation projects in non-Annex I Parties. If any Annex I party provides technology to them they receive credit called Certified Emission Reduction (CER).
  • Joint implementation (JI): it is a project-based mechanism by which one Annex I Party can invest in a project that reduces emissions or enhances sequestration in another Annex I Party, and receive credit for the emission reductions or removals achieved through that project. The unit associated with JI is called an emission reduction unit (ERU). 

  • In Doha, Qatar, on 8 December 2012, the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol was adopted for a second commitment period, starting in 2013 and lasting until 2020.
  •  As of February 2020, 137 states have accepted the Doha Amendment, while entry into force requires the acceptances of 144 states. Of the 37 countries with binding commitments, 7 have ratified.
  • The amendment includes:
    • New commitments for Annex I Parties to the Kyoto Protocol who agreed to take on commitments in a second commitment period from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2020;
    • A revised list of GHG to be reported on by Parties in the second commitment period; and
    • Amendments to several articles of the Kyoto Protocol specifically referenced issues pertaining to the first commitment period and which needed to be updated for the second commitment period.
  • This is known as the second commitment period of the Kyoto protocol.

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