Correct Answer - Option 4 : None of the above
Lawrence Kohlberg, an American psychologist, has propounded the 'Theory of Moral Development'.
- He has made a systematic study of moral development in his theory that is categorized into 3 levels and 6 stages.
- He created moral development theory by posing moral dilemmas to groups of children as well as adolescents and adults.
- According Kohlberg moral dilemma is the thinking process involved in judgements about questions of right & wrong.
Level 1: Pre-conventional Morality It consists of the first two levels of moral development. Here morality is judged based on the standards of adults and the consequence of an action.
Stage I (Obedience and Punishment Orientation) — An action is immoral if it is punished by the authority.
Stage II (Individualism and Exchange) — This stage is self-interest driven and children understood for the first time that different individuals may have different viewpoints. An action is considered morally correct if it is in the best interest of the individual.
Level 2: Conventional Morality: This level consists of stages three and four. During this level, children start internalizing the value of society to judge morality.
Stage III (Good Interpersonal Relationship) — Intention of the actor is more important in terms of judging the moral values. If the intention is to gain the consensus of others or approval of the society then the actor will be judged morally right.
Stage IV (Maintaining the Social Order) — Judgment of morality is based on one’s duty, law, and social order. actively maintaining the current social system ensures positive human relationships and societal order
Level 3: Post Conventional Morality: The last level consist of stage five and six of moral development. According to Kohlberg, very few people are able to reach this level. Here, the individual perspective is given more importance over social rule and order. Individual judge morality based on basic human rights and justice.
Stage V (Social Contract and Individual Rights) – In this stage, the individual or child understands that different people and communities may hold different views and laws. Laws of the society are not rigid edicts and should be changed with the change in the time and need of the society.
Stage VI (Universal Principles) – Individual judge morality of the actor based on some universal principles that transcend beyond the society’s rules and regulations.
Hence, it could be concluded that Kohlberg's theory of 'moral development' is consisting of 3 levels of moral development. So, none of the above is correct.