Correct Answer - Option 4 : Criterion-referenced testing
- Test data is data that has been specifically identified for use in tests, typically of a computer program.
- Some data may be used in a confirmatory way, typically to verify that a given set of input to a given function produces some expected result.
- Test data is the Input feed for Testing the Application.
- Test Data helps the developers to find the problem during fixes.
- Test Data may be used in a confirmatory way, typically to verify that a given set of input to a given function produces some expected result.
- Formative assessment is also known as assessment for learning.
- It Includes diagnostic testing.
- It is a range of formal and informal assessment procedures conducted by teachers during the learning process in order to modify teaching and learning activities to improve student attainment.
- They are often ungraded and informal.
- Their aim is to provide both the students and instructor with a gauge of where their level of understanding is at the current moment.
- Summative evaluation is done at the end of a course of instruction to know to what extent the objectives previously fixed have been accomplished.
- it is the evaluation of pupils' achievement at the end of a course.
- The main objective of the summative evaluation is to assign grades to the pupils.
- Summative assessment, summative evaluation, or assessment of learning is the assessment of participants where the focus is on the outcome of a program.
- This contrasts with formative assessment, which summarizes the participants' development at a particular time.
- A norm-referenced test is a type of test, assessment, or evaluation that yields an estimate of the position of the tested individual in a predefined population, with respect to the trait being measured.
- Assigning scores on such tests may be described as relative grading, marking on a curve, or grading on a curve.
- Norm-referenced tests report whether test takers performed better or worse than a hypothetical average student, which is determined by comparing scores against the performance results of a statistically selected group of test-takers, typically of the same age or grade level, who have already taken the exam.
- A criterion-referenced test is a style of test that uses test scores to generate a statement about the behavior that can be expected of a person with that score.
- Most tests and quizzes that are written by school teachers can be considered criterion-referenced tests.
- A criterion-referenced test is designed to measure a student's academic performance against some standard or criteria.
- This standard or criteria is predetermined before students begin the test.
Therefore, When the 'test data' tell us about a student's level of proficiency in a defined area, the procedure of evaluation is called Criterion-referenced testing.