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Itai-itai disease is caused by the toxicity of which of the following elements?
1. Mercury
2. Cadmium
3. Lead
4. Arsenic

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Correct Answer - Option 2 : Cadmium

The correct answer is ​Cadmium.

  • Itai-Itai disease was officially recognized in 1968 as the first disease induced by environmental pollution in Japan after legal proceedings.
  • Itai-Itai disease is caused by cadmium (Cd) exposure, produced as a result of human activities related to industrialization.
  • Itai-Itai disease is characterized by osteomalacia with severe bone pain and is associated with renal tubular dysfunction.
  • It was first reported in the Cd-polluted Jinzu River basin of Toyama Prefecture, Japan.

  • Cadmium is a toxic metal with common exposure in industrial workplaces, plant soils, and from smoking.
  • Cadmium exerts toxic effects on the kidneys as well as the skeletal and respiratory systems.
    • It is classified as a human carcinogen.
  • Cadmium is a poison and is known to cause birth defects and cancer.
  • 80% of cadmium currently produced is used in rechargeable nickel-cadmium batteries.
  • Cadmium was often used to electroplate steel and protect it from corrosion.

Description Disease
High-level exposure to methyl mercury Minamata.
Lead exposure caused diseases Anaemia, hypertension, Renal impairment, Immunotoxicity, and toxicity to the reproductive organs.
Exposure to arsenic in drinking water over a period of time caused disease Arsenicosis.

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