Correct Answer - Option 2 : Alluvial
The correct answer is Alluvial.
- The alluvial soil occurs mainly in the Sutlej- Ganga- Brahmaputra Plains.
- Most available soil in India (about 43%) covers the land area.
- They are also found in the valleys of the Narmada, Tapi, and the Eastern and Western coastal plains.
- This soil has a phosphorous deficiency but rich in potash and lime.
- The color of soil varies from light grey to ash.
- This soil is suitable for Kharif and Rabi crops like rice, maize, wheat, sugarcane, pulses, oilseeds, jute, etc.
Alluvial soil is divided into two
Khadar Soil (New): The khadar soils are enriched with fresh silts. They are low-lying, frequently inundated by floods during the rainy season. It occupies the flood plains of rivers. The khaddar tracts called kankar are rich in concentration.
Bhangar Soil (Old): This soil lies above the flood level. It is well-drained but because of the calcium carbonate nodules, the texture of soil varies from loamy soil to clayey soil.
- The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) has classified soils into 8 categories.
- Alluvial Soil, Black Cotton Soil or Regur Soil, Red Soil, Laterite Soil, Mountainous or Forest Soils, Arid or Desert Soil, Saline and Alkaline Soil, Peaty, and Marshy Soil.
- The laterite soils develop in areas of high temperature and high rainfall.
- Laterite soil is soft, when they are wet and so hard and cloddy’ on drying.
- Laterite soils are found mainly in the hills of the Western Ghats, Raj Mahal hills, Eastern Ghats, Satpura, Vindhya, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, West Bengal, North Cachar Hills, and the Garo hills.
- Laterite soils are red in color with a high content of iron oxides.
- These are rich in iron and aluminum.
- These are poor in organic matter, nitrogen, potassium, lime, and potash.
- This soil is suitable for the cultivation of tea, coffee, rubber, millets, and cashew nuts.
Black or Regur Soil
- Black soil is also known as cotton soil.
- This is the third largest group in India. This soil is formed from rocks of cretaceous lava.
- This stretch over the parts of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Western parts of Madhya Pradesh, North- Western Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand up to Raj Mahal hills.
- The soil is rich in iron, lime, calcium, potash, magnesium, and aluminum.
- It has a high water-retaining capacity.
- This soil is suitable for cotton, tobacco, jowar, sugarcane, wheat, rice, fruits and vegetables, and linseed.
Arid or Desert Soil
- This soil is deposited by wind action and mainly found in the arid and semi-arid areas like Rajasthan, West of the Aravallis, Northern Gujarat, Saurashtra, Kachchh, Western parts of Haryana, and southern part of Punjab.
- They are sandy with low organic matter.
- It has low soluble salts and moisture with very low retaining capacity.
- If irrigated this soil gives a high agricultural return.
- These are suitable for less water-intensive crops like bajra, pulses, millets, maize, fodder, and guar.