Correct Answer - Option 4 : Pratyaksha
Pramana according to Buddhism Philosophy
Pramana means "valid cognition." In Buddhism practice, it refers to the tradition, principally associated with Dignāga and Dharmakīrti, of logic and epistemology.
- Buddhism accepts only two pramana as valid means to knowledge: Pratyaksha and Anumaṇa.
- Rinpoche adds that Buddhism also considers scriptures as the third valid pramana, such as from Buddha and other "valid minds" and "valid persons".
- This third source of valid knowledge is a form of perception and inference in Buddhist thought.
- Means of cognition and knowledge, other than perception and inference, are considered invalid in Buddhism.
Pramana is a Sanskrit term usually translated into English as “valid cognition.”
- The main Buddhist pramana tradition dates from the beginning of the sixth century when the master Dignaga articulated a comprehensive system in his Pramanasamuchchaya, or Compendium on Valid Cognition. This system was expanded upon and refined in the seventh century by another master named Dharmakirti, who composed seven treatises on valid cognition, the most important of which is the Pramanavarttika, or the Commentary on Valid Cognition.
- In Buddhism, the means of cognition of knowledge are through perception (pratyaksha) and inference (anumana).
Hence, Pratyaksha has been accepted in Buddhism.