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Given below are two statements: One is labelled as Assertion A and the other is labelled as Reason R.

Assertion (A): The People of Harappan civilization are said to have commercial links with the people of the Tigris and Euphrates basins.

Reason (R): There is no archaeological evidence to substantiate the hypothesis of trade links with Mesopotamia.

In the light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:


1. Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
2. Both (A) and (R) are correct but (R) is NOT the correct explanation of (A)
3. (A) is correct but (R) is not correct
4. (A) is not correct but (R) is correct

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Correct Answer - Option 3 : (A) is correct but (R) is not correct

First, we will consider the statement of Assertion (A),

  • Tigris-Euphrates river system, great river system of southwestern Asia. It comprises the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, which follow roughly parallel courses through the heart of the Middle East. The lower portion of the region that they define, known as Mesopotamia was one of the cradles of civilization.
  • Trading network, both internal (within the country) and external (foreign), was a significant feature of the urban economy of the Harappans.
  • Various kinds of metals and precious stones were needed by craftsmen to make goods, but as these were not available locally they had to be brought from outside. It is believed that it must have also come from Mesopotamia in exchange for the Harappan goods.
  • The Harappan or the Indus Valley Civilisation, occurring in the Bronze Age, had a geographic spread greater than any contemporaneous civilisation. The Mesopotamian Civilisation in present-day Iraq, which began in 5,000 BCE and flourished between 3,500 BCE and 2,500 BCE, and with which the Indus Valley inhabitants had trade links, was located between two rivers — the Tigris and the Euphrates. 
  • Hence, the statement is given in Assertion (A) is true.

 

In the next step, we will consider Reason (R).

  • The Indus people had trade connections with the people of Mesopotamian Civilisation.
  • The inscriptional evidence from Mesopotamia also provides us with valuable information on Harappan contact with Mesopotamia. These inscriptions refer to trade with Dilmun, Magan and Meluhha.
  • The findings at Rakhigarhi suggest it may have played an important role in the contacts with Mesopotamia. The site could provide clues about the relations of the Harappan people with their contemporaries, and the nature of these interactions.
  • Therefore, the statement of Reason is not true.

Conclusion- We can say that the statement of Assertion (A) is correct but the Reason (R) is not correct.

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