Correct Answer - Option 4 : Development is characterized by differentiation and integration
Development is the pattern of progressive, orderly, and predictable changes that begin at conception and continue throughout life. Development mostly involves changes — both growth and decline, as observed during old age.
A child coming to pre-school for the first time cries profusely. After two years when the same child goes to the primary school for the first time, he does not express his tension by crying rather his shoulder and neck muscles become tense. This change in his behaviour is due to the principle of diffrentiation and integration of development.
Development is characterized by differentiation and integration-
Werner proposed that development consisted of two processes: integration and differentiation.
Integration refers to the idea that development consists of the integration of more basic, previously acquired behaviours into new, higher level structures.
Differentiation refers to the idea that development also involves the progressive ability to make more distinctions among things.
So when a child starts from crying then changes his behaviour to does not express his tension by crying rather his shoulder and neck muscles become tense. This shows that he learns to successfully reach for objects has learned to coordinate a variety of skills.
Thus from above-mentioned points, it is clear that child's this behaviour shows the principle of integration and differentiation od development.
Another principles of development are-
|Principle of Continuity
||Development follows continuity.
|Principle of Individual difference
||Each child develops at his own unique pace.
|Principle of interaction of maturation and learning
||development occurs as a result of maturation.
|Principle of Inter-related development
||physical, intellectual, social and emotional development are inter-related.
|Principle of commulative development
||it means to add up
|Principle of spiral and not linear
||the child does not proceed straightly on the path of development.