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Which of the following is true about indigenous education in India in early 19th century?

I. Schools were run with contribution from local rich man

II. Curriculum focused on classical languages and classical traditions

1. Only I
2. Only II
3. Neither I nor II
4. Both I and II

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Correct Answer - Option 4 : Both I and II

Indigenous education refers to the teaching of indigenous knowledge, models, methods, and content by using formal or non-formal educational systems. Indigenous education was prevalent at the advent of the Britishers. 

Some of the characteristics of Indigenous education:

  • Indigenous education was imparted at home, in temples, pathshalas, tols, chatuspadis, maktabs, madrassas, and gurukuls.
  • During that period, knowledge was considered pious hence no fee was charged. Contributions to education were considered the highest form of donation. Financial support came from rich merchants, wealthy parents, and society.
  • The form, content, target group, place, coverage, support, organization, administration, and so on, differed widely from geographical area to area, from time to time, from kingdom to kingdom, from religion to religion, and from activity to activity.
  • The curriculum of indigenous education focused on classical languages and classical traditions.
  • They study different branches of liberal education, like grammar, literature, poetics, law, philosophy, and logic.
  • Education activities were, often, basically intended to promote the knowledge of social, religious, historical, political, medical, fine arts, and literary events and aspects.
  • Often both education and entertainment went hand in hand but not related to the economic strivings of the community.
  • Furthermore, these activities were scattered, organized, and administered by the small institutions under the control of religious communities or small groups of people enjoying the royal patronage in the local areas under the respective kingdoms.
  • Moreover, the transfer and exchange of information and knowledge, and the educational participation and interaction was more elitist, usually confined to only certain people of selected social classes or positions.

From the above, we can say that in indigenous education in India in the early 19th century schools were run with contributions from the local rich man and curriculum focused on classical languages and classical traditions.

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