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Which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) of India was established on 12 October 1993.

2. It conforms with the Hague Principles adopted at the first international workshop on national institutions for the promotion and protection of human rights.


1. 1 only
2. 2 only
3. Both 1 and 2
4. Neither 1 nor 2

1 Answer

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Correct Answer - Option 1 : 1 only

The correct answer is 1 only.

  • The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) of India was established on 12 October 1993. Hence, Statement 1 is correct.
  • The statute under which it is established is the Protection of Human Rights Act (PHRA), 1993 as amended by the Protection of Human Rights (Amendment) Act, 2006.
  • It conforms with the Paris Principles, adopted at the first international workshop on national institutions for the promotion and protection of human rights held in Paris in October 1991, and endorsed by the General Assembly of the United Nations by its Regulations 48/134 of 20 December 1993. Hence, Statement 2 is incorrect.
  • The NHRC is an embodiment of India’s concern for the promotion and protection of human rights.
  • Section 2(1)(d) of the PHRA defines Human Rights as the rights relating to life, liberty, equality, and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the Constitution or embodied in the International Covenants and enforceable by courts in India.
  • Vision and Mission
    • The National Human Rights Commission, India has been set up by an Act of Parliament under the Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993 for the protection and promotion of human rights. The functions of the Commission as stated in Section 12 of the Act and apart from an inquiry into complaints of violation of human rights or negligence in the prevention of such violation by a public servant, the Commission also studies treaties and international instruments on human rights and make recommendations for their effective implementation to the Government.
    • The Commission is responsible for spreading human rights awareness amongst the masses and encouraging the efforts of all stakeholders in the field of human rights literacy not only at the national level but at the international level too. NHRC is a unique institution because it is one of the few National Human Rights Institutes (NHRIs) in the world whose Chairperson is the former Chief Justice of the country. The world looks at the NHRC of India as a role model in promoting and monitoring the effective implementation of promotion and protection of human rights.
    • Section 2(1) (d) of the PHR Act defines Human Rights as the rights relating to life, liberty, equality, and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the Constitution or embodied in the International Covenants and enforceable by courts in India.
    • The NHRC, India plays an active role in coordinating with other NHRIs of the world to enhance awareness from the perspective of human rights. It has also hosted delegations from UN Bodies and other National Human Rights Commissions as well as members of civil society, lawyers, and political and social activists from many countries.

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