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In the seventh Century A.D. big landlords or warrior chiefs in different regions were known as:
1. Maha-Samantas
2. Amatya
3. Mahamatya
4. Samantas

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Correct Answer - Option 4 : Samantas
  • Many new dynasties emerged after the seventh century.
  • By the seventh century there were big landlords or warrior chiefs in different regions of the subcontinent.
  • Existing kings often acknowledged them as their subordinates or samantas.
  • They were expected to bring gifts for their kings or overlords, be present at their courts and provide them with military support.
  • As samantas gained power and wealth, they declared themselves to be maha-samanta, maha-mandaleshvara (the great lord of a “circle” or region) and so on.
  • Sometimes they asserted their independence from their overlords.
  • One such instance was that of the Rashtrakutas in the Deccan. Initially they were subordinate to the Chalukyas of Karnataka.
  • In the mid-eighth century, Dantidurga, a Rashtrakuta chief, overthrew his Chalukya overlord and performed a ritual called hiranya-garbha (literally, the golden womb).
  • When this ritual was performed with the help of Brahmanas, it was thought to lead to the “rebirth” of the sacrificer as a Kshatriya, even if he was not one by birth.

Amatyas were civil servants during Mauryan Empire to look after the day-to-day administration.

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