(i) The first half of the 19th century saw an enormous increase in population all over Europe.
(ii) Job-seekers were more and employment opportunities were less.
(iii) People from rural areas migrated to cities and made cities over-crowded slums.
(iv) Small producers often faced stiff competition from imports of cheap machine-made goods.
(v) Peasants struggled under the burden of feudal dues and obligations.