Correct Answer - Option 3 : Pragmatics
We all know that languages have a structural arrangement as enunciated by the rules of grammar. we can view language as a system of speech sounds used to construct meaningful words and sentences therefrom. The second articulation is that of meaningful words combining into language expressions. Also, we have a third dimension of meaning derived from the words.
The structure of language as given below:
Pragmatics: Pragmatics the study of language use in interpersonal communication.
- The rules for when and how to use language to be an effective communicator in a particular culture
- It is concerned with the choices made by speakers and the options and constraints which apply in social interaction.
- It examines the effects of language use on participants in acts of communication.
- Pragmatics is closely related to semantics, the study of meaning, with which it is often associated.
- Field of pragmatics:
Pragma linguistics deals with the more linguistic end of the pragmatic spectrum.
Socio pragmatics would see usage as primarily determined by social factors in communication.
Applied pragmatics refers to practical problems of interaction in situations where successful communication is critical, e.g. medical interviews, law courts, interrogations, official counseling.
Semantics: It covers a range of levels – grammar, syntax, and the lexicon. Types of semantics are-
- Formal semantics
- Conceptual semantics
- Cognitive semantics
- Lexical semantics
- Cross-cultural semantics
- Computational semantics
Phonetics: It is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans make and perceive sounds, or in the case of sign languages, the equivalent aspects of sign. Phoneticians—linguists who specialize in phonetics—study the physical properties of speech.
Hence, we can conclude that the rules for when and how to use language to be an effective communicator in a particular culture, are known as Pragmatics.