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The 'investment theory of creativity' is given by
1. Binet and Simons
2. Carrol and Cattle
3. Sternberg and Lubart
4. Watson and Ryner

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Correct Answer - Option 3 : Sternberg and Lubart

Creativity is defined as something different from intelligence and as a parallel construct to intelligence, but it differs from intelligence in that it is not restricted to cognitive or intellectual functioning or behavior. 

Sternberg and Lubart (2006) have proposed an investment theory to understand creativity. According to the investment theory, creativity requires a confluence of six distinct but interrelated resources: intellectual abilities, knowledge, styles of thinking, personality, motivation, and environment. Although levels of these resources are sources of individual differences, often the decision to use a resource is a more important source of individual differences.

  • Intellectual skills: Three intellectual skills are particularly important: (a) the synthetic skill to see problems in new ways and to escape the bonds of conventional thinking, (b) the analytic skill to recognize which of one’s ideas are worth pursuing and which are not, and (c) the practical–contextual skill to know how to persuade others of—to sell other people on—the value of one’s ideas.
  • Knowledge: On the one hand, one needs to know enough about a field to move it forward. One cannot move beyond where a field is if one does not know where it is. 
  • Thinking styles: Thinking styles are preferred ways of using one’s skills. In essence, they are decisions about how to deploy the skills available to a person. About thinking styles, a legislative style is particularly important for creativity, that is, a preference for thinking and a decision to think in new ways.
  • Personality: Numerous research investigations have supported the importance of certain personality attributes for creative functioning. These attributes include, but are not limited to, willingness to overcome obstacles, willingness to take sensible risks, willingness to tolerate ambiguity and self-efficacy.
  • Motivation: Intrinsic, task-focused motivation is also essential to creativity. The research of Amabile (1983) and others has shown the importance of such motivation for creative work and has suggested that people rarely do truly creative work in an area unless they really love what they are doing and focus on the work rather than the potential rewards.
  • Environment: Finally, one needs an environment that is supportive and rewarding of creative ideas. One could have all of the internal resources needed to think creatively, but without some environmental support (such as a forum for proposing those ideas), the creativity that a person has within him or she might never be displayed.
  • Confluence: Concerning the confluence of these six components, creativity is hypothesized to involve more than a simple sum of a person’s level on each component. 

Hence, we can conclude that the 'investment theory of creativity' is given by Sternberg and Lubart.

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