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Which are the Constitutional Amendments related to De-centralisation of Democracy?

1. 73rd and 74th Amendment
2. 42nd and 43rd Amendment
3. 45th and 46th amendment
4. 75th and 76th amendment

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Correct Answer - Option 1 : 73rd and 74th Amendment
The Correct answer is 73rd and 74th Amendments.
  • 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act:
    • This act has added a new Part-IX to the Constitution of India.
    • This part is entitled ‘The Panchayats’ and consists of provisions from Articles 243 to 243 O.
    • In addition, the act has also added a new Eleventh Schedule to the Constitution.
    • This schedule contains 29 functional items of the panchayats, It deals with Article 243-G.
    • The act has given a practical shape to Article 40 of the Constitution which says that “The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self-government.” 
    • The Act gives constitutional status to the Panchayati raj institutions.
    • It has brought them under the purview of the justiciable part of the Constitution.
    • The provisions of the act can be grouped into two categories compulsory and voluntary.
    • The act is a significant landmark in the evolution of grassroots democratic institutions in the country.
    • It transfers representative democracy into participatory democracy.
    • It is a revolutionary concept to build democracy at the grassroots level in the country.
  • 74th Constitutional Amendment Act:
    • This Act has added a new Part IX-A to the Constitution of India.
    • This part is entitled ‘The Municipalities’ and consists of provisions from Articles 243- P to 243-ZG.
    • In addition, the act has also added a new Twelfth Schedule to the Constitution.
    • This schedule contains eighteen functional items of municipalities, It deals with Article 243-W.
    • The act gave constitutional status to the municipalities.
    • It has brought them under the purview of the justiciable part of the Constitution.
    • The act aims at revitalising and strengthening the urban governments so that they function effectively as units of local government.
    • The act established three types of municipalities in every state:
      • A Nagar Panchayat (by whatever name called) for a transitional area, that is an area in transition from a rural area to an urban area.
      • A municipal council for a smaller urban area.
      • A municipal corporation for a larger urban area

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