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In Colum - A, names of scientists are given and in Column - B, some discoveries are given

Column - A

Column - B

(a) Alexander Fleming

(i) Anthrax bacterium

(b) Edward Jenner

(ii) Fermentation

(c) Louis Pasteur

(iii) Lactobacillus bacterium

(d) Robert Koch

(iv) Penicillin


(v) Smallpox vaccine


The correct match of the names of scientists with their discoveries is

1. (a) - (iv), (b) - (v), (c) - (ii), (d) - (i)
2. (a) - (i), (b) - (iii), (c) - (ii), (d) - (iv)
3. (a) - (iv), (b) - (ii), (c) - (v), (d) - (iii)
4. (a) - (iii), (b) - (v), (c) - (ii), (d) - (i)

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Correct Answer - Option 1 : (a) - (iv), (b) - (v), (c) - (ii), (d) - (i)



  • This process of conversion of sugar into alcohol is known as fermentation. 
  • Yeast and bacteria are helpful in process of fermentation. 
  • Fermentation is also used for making alcoholic beverages. 
  • The process is used to make food items like dosa and idli. 
  • Louis Pasteur discovered fermentation in 1857. 


  • Penicillin is a type of antibiotic.
  • It was discovered by a Scottish bacteriologist, Alexander Fleming in 1928.
  • It was widely used to treat the different types of bacterial infections that plagued man.
  • Penicillin was an accidental discovery, but it was a landmark discovery in the field of medicine.
  • Penicillin is acquired from a mold called Penicillium notatum (also known as Penicillium chrysogenum).


  • Our body produces antibodies if the microbes causing diseases enter. 
  • The body also remembers how to fight the microbe if it enters again.
  • This is the formula used for preparing vaccines. 
  • If dead or weakened microbes are introduced into a healthy body, the body can fight by developing suitable antibodies. 
  • Government promotes vaccination and vaccination drives like pulse polio Abhiyan were quite successful. 
  • Edward Jenner discovered the vaccine for smallpox in 1798. 
  • A worldwide campaign against smallpox has finally led to its eradication from most parts of the world.

Disease-causing Microbes

  • Microbes cause certain communicable diseases in animals, human beings,s, and Plants also. 
  • These are spread through touch, air, water, or other mediums.
  • Examples of such diseases include cholera, common cold, chickenpox, and tuberculosis.
  • Anthrax bacterium causes anthrax which is a dangerous human and cattle disease. 
  • Robert Köch (1876) discovered the bacterium Anthrax also known as Bacillus anthracis.

Lactobacillus bacterium

  • This bacterium is important for curd formation.
  • Lactobacillus promotes the formation of curd.
  • It multiplies in milk and converts it into curd.


  • So, the question is regarding microorganisms, their uses, diseases caused by them, and discoveries related to them. 
  • Alexander Fleming discovered Penicillin.
  • Edward Jenner discovered the smallpox vaccine. 
  • Louis Pasteur discovered fermentation. 
  • Robert Koch discovered Anthrax bacterium. 

Therefore, the correct match is (a) - (iv), (b) - (v), (c) - (ii), (d) - (i).

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