Correct Answer - Option 1 : (a) - (iv), (b) - (v), (c) - (ii), (d) - (i)
- This process of conversion of sugar into alcohol is known as fermentation.
- Yeast and bacteria are helpful in process of fermentation.
- Fermentation is also used for making alcoholic beverages.
- The process is used to make food items like dosa and idli.
Louis Pasteur discovered fermentation in 1857.
- Penicillin is a type of antibiotic.
- It was discovered by a Scottish bacteriologist, Alexander Fleming in 1928.
- It was widely used to treat the different types of bacterial infections that plagued man.
- Penicillin was an accidental discovery, but it was a landmark discovery in the field of medicine.
- Penicillin is acquired from a mold called Penicillium notatum (also known as Penicillium chrysogenum).
- Our body produces antibodies if the microbes causing diseases enter.
- The body also remembers how to fight the microbe if it enters again.
- This is the formula used for preparing vaccines.
- If dead or weakened microbes are introduced into a healthy body, the body can fight by developing suitable antibodies.
- Government promotes vaccination and vaccination drives like pulse polio Abhiyan were quite successful.
- Edward Jenner discovered the vaccine for smallpox in 1798.
- A worldwide campaign against smallpox has finally led to its eradication from most parts of the world.
- Microbes cause certain communicable diseases in animals, human beings,s, and Plants also.
- These are spread through touch, air, water, or other mediums.
- Examples of such diseases include cholera, common cold, chickenpox, and tuberculosis.
- Anthrax bacterium causes anthrax which is a dangerous human and cattle disease.
Robert Köch (1876) discovered the bacterium Anthrax also known as Bacillus anthracis.
- This bacterium is important for curd formation.
- Lactobacillus promotes the formation of curd.
- It multiplies in milk and converts it into curd.
- So, the question is regarding microorganisms, their uses, diseases caused by them, and discoveries related to them.
- Alexander Fleming discovered Penicillin.
- Edward Jenner discovered the smallpox vaccine.
- Louis Pasteur discovered fermentation.
- Robert Koch discovered Anthrax bacterium.
Therefore, the correct match is (a) - (iv), (b) - (v), (c) - (ii), (d) - (i).