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Consider the following statements about Dhrupad, a genre in Hindustani classical music.

1. It finds mention in Ain-e-Akbari.

2. The phrases of Dhrupad alapa are slow and contemplative in the beginning, but the tempo increases in stages.

3. The word Dhrupad is derived from Dhruva, the steadfast evening star that moves through the galaxy, and Pada meaning poetry.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?


1. 1 and 2 only
2. 1 and 3 only
3. 2 and 3 only
4. 1, 2 and 3 only

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Best answer
Correct Answer - Option 4 : 1, 2 and 3 only

The correct answer is 1, 2 and 3.

  • The word Dhrupad is derived from Dhruva, the steadfast evening star that moves through the galaxy, and Pada meaning poetry. Hence, statement 3 is correct.
  • Abul Fazl, courtier and chronicler at the court of Emperor Akbar, defines the dhrupad verse form in his Ain-e-Akbari as “four rhyming lines, each of indefinite prosodic length. Hence, statement 1 is correct.
  • The elaboration of Dhrupad alap is done using the syllables of a mantric phrase, it is slow in the beginning and raises tempo after some time. Hence, statement 2 is correct.

  • Dhrupad and khyāl are the two forms of classical singing that exist today in North India.
  • Traditionally, the dhrupad style of singing was performed with a tanpura and pakhawaj.
  • The lyrics sung in Dhrupad are in a medieval form of Hindi and typically heroic in theme, or praise of a particular deity.
  • It is a form of devotional music that traces its origin to the ancient text of Samveda.
  • One significant characteristic of Dhrupad is the emphasis on maintaining the purity of the Raga.
  • Hindustani classical music is primarily vocal-centric. The primary vocal forms associated with Hindustani music are the Khayal, Ghazal, Dhrupad, Dhammar, Tarana, and Thumri.

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