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Global environmental problem is mainly due to:
1. Climate change
2. Increasing Population
3. Rising temperature
4. Melting of Iceberg

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Correct Answer - Option 2 : Increasing Population

Global environmental major issues:

  • One of the primary causes of environmental degradation in a country could be attributed to the rapid growth of population, which adversely affects the natural resources and environment.
  • The uprising population and environmental deterioration face the challenge of sustainable development.
  • The existence or the absence of favorable natural resources can facilitate or retard the process of socio-economic development.
  • The three basic demographic factors of births (natality), deaths (mortality) and human migration (migration) and immigration (population moving into a country produces higher population) produce changes in population size, composition, distribution, and these changes raise a number of important questions of cause and effect.
  • Population growth and economic development are contributing to many serious environmental calamities in India. These include heavy pressure on land, land degradation, forests, habitat destruction, and loss of biodiversity.
  • Changing consumption pattern has led to a rising demand for energy. The final outcomes of this are air pollution, global warming, climate change, water scarcity, and water pollution.
  • Environmental issues in India include various natural hazards, particularly cyclones and annual monsoon floods, population growth, increasing individual consumption, industrialization, infrastructural development, poor agricultural practices, and resource mal-distribution have led to the substantial human transformation of India’s natural environment.
  • An estimated 60% of cultivated land suffers from soil erosion, waterlogging, and salinity.
  • It is also estimated that between 4.7 and 12 billion tons of topsoil are lost annually from soil erosion.
  • From 1947 to 2002, average annual per capita water availability declined by almost 70% to 1,822 cubic meters, and overexploitation of groundwater is problematic in the states of Haryana, Punjab, and Uttar Pradesh.
  • Forest area covers 18.34% of India’s geographic area (637000 km²). Nearly half of the country’s forest cover is found in the state of Madhya Pradesh (20.7%) and the seven states of the northeast (25.7%); the latter is experiencing net forest loss.
  • Forest cover is declining because of harvesting for fuel wood and the expansion of agricultural land. These trends, combined with increasing industrial and motor vehicle pollution output, have led to atmospheric temperature increases, shifting precipitation patterns, and declining intervals of drought recurrence in many areas.
  • The Indian Agricultural Research Institute of Parvati has estimated that a 3°C rise in temperature will result in a 15 to 20% loss in annual wheat yields.

These are substantial problems for a nation with such a large population depending on the productivity of primary resources and whose economic growth relies heavily on industrial growth.

Environmental issues at the global level

  • Depletion of natural resources
  • Water pollution
  • Air pollution
  • Groundwater pollution
  • Toxic chemicals & soil pollution
  • Ozone layer depletion
  • Global warming
  • Loss of biodiversity
  • Extinction of wildlife and loss of natural habitat
  • Nuclear wastes and radiation issues

Hence, the Global environmental problem is mainly due to the increasing Population.

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