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Which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. The Indian National Satellite (INSAT) system is one of the largest domestic communication satellite systems in the Asia-Pacific region with nine operational communication satellites placed in Geo-stationary orbit.

2. India has one of the largest constellations of remote sensing satellites in operation.


1. 1 only
2. 2 only
3. Both 1 and 2
4. Neither 1 nor 2

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Correct Answer - Option 3 : Both 1 and 2

The correct answer is Both 1 and 2.

 Indian National Satellite (INSAT) system:

  • The Indian National Satellite (INSAT) system is one of the largest domestic communication satellite systems in the Asia-Pacific region with nine operational communication satellites placed in Geo-stationary orbit. Hence, Statement 1 is correct.
  • Established in 1983 with the commissioning of INSAT-1B, it initiated a major revolution in India’s communications sector and sustained the same later.
  • GSAT-17 joins the constellation of INSAT System consisting 15 operational satellites, namely - INSAT - 3A, 3C, 4A, 4B, 4CR and GSAT - 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16 and 18.
  • The INSAT system with more than 200 transponders in the C, Extended C, and Ku-bands provides services to telecommunications, television broadcasting, satellite newsgathering, societal applications, weather forecasting, disaster warning and Search and Rescue operations.

Earth Observation Satellites

  • Starting with IRS-1A in 1988, ISRO has launched many operational remote sensing satellites.
  • Today, India has one of the largest constellations of remote sensing satellites in operation. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • Currently, *thirteen* operational satellites are in Sun-synchronous orbit – RESOURCESAT-1, 2, 2A CARTOSAT-1, 2, 2A, 2B, RISAT-1 and 2, OCEANSAT-2, Megha-Tropiques, SARAL and SCATSAT-1, and *four* in Geostationary orbit- INSAT-3D, Kalpana & INSAT 3A, INSAT -3DR.
  • Varieties of instruments have been flown onboard these satellites to provide necessary data in diversified spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions to cater to different user requirements in the country and for global usage.
  • The data from these satellites are used for several applications covering agriculture, water resources, urban planning, rural development, mineral prospecting, environment, forestry, ocean resources, and disaster management.

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