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NEET 2023
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The main purpose of education should be the integrated development of the person. Who has offered a model in this regard?
1. Aurobindo
2. Tagore
3. Gandhi
4. Vivekananda

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Correct Answer - Option 1 : Aurobindo

Indian thinkers and their philosophy of education:

Shri Aurobindo Ghosh:

  • Shri Aurobindo (1872 – 1950) can be viewed as a 20th -century renaissance person who thought and brought many unique principles of education.
  • Shri Aurobindo emphasized that education should be in accordance with the needs of our real modern life. In other words, education should create dynamic citizens so that they are able to meet the needs of modern complex life.
  •  According to him, physical development and holiness are the chief aims of education.
  • Shri Aurobindo maintained such educational philosophy which was proper for the Indian people, not something merely following the past but to the developing the skills of Indians which leads to self-creation and her eternal spirit.
  • His concept of education is not only getting simple knowledge but getting different types of knowledge that he points to as the necessities of education: it is the main objective of making the powers of the human mind and spirit.
  • Shri Aurobindo aimed at the whole transformation of student life through his Integral education theory. But an integral education has three central aims to be fulfilled –
  • for an individual, to outgrow the fullest possibilities of his soul;
  • for the nation, to strengthen and enrich its national-soul, to focus on its dharma;
  • for the advancement of both the individual and the nation in such a way that it can grow into the ascending powers of mind and soul of humanity. All these aims on the Shri Aurobindo’s most desired awakening of Spiritual Being.

Rabindranath Tagore

  • There are four fundamental principles in Tagore's educational philosophy; naturalismhumanism, internationalism, and idealism.
  • He insisted that education should be imparted in natural surroundings.
  • According to him, “Education means enabling the mind to find out that ultimate truth which emancipates us from the bondage of dust and gives us wealth not of things but of inner light, not of power but of love. It is a process of enlightenment. It is divine wealth. It helps in the realization of the truth”.
  • The aim of education is to bring about the perfection of man by dispelling ignorance and ushering in the light of knowledge. It should enable us to lead a complete life – economic, intellectual, aesthetic, social, and spiritual.
  • The main objective of his school – Shantiniketan was to cultivate a love for nature, to impart knowledge and wisdom in one’s native language, provide freedom of mind, heart, and will, a natural ambiance, and to eventually enrich Indian culture.
  • He considered Nature as a powerful agency for the moral and spiritual development of the child exerting a very healthy influence upon the heart, mind, and body of the child.
  • He was of the firm view that education is a vehicle of social reform. Hence, it should act as a life-giving current to modern society serving in various ways.

Mahatma Gandhi

  • He synthesized all the three basic philosophies of education into his philosophy of education — Naturalism, Idealism, and Pragmatism. 
  • He advocated for free and compulsory education, craft –centered education, mother- tongue as a medium of instruction.
  • His famous quote "By education, I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body, mind, and spirit”, emphasizes the all-round development of a child.
  • Literacy is not the end of education nor even the beginning. It is only one of the means whereby man and woman can be educated. Literacy in itself is no education. I would, therefore, begin the child's education by teaching it a useful handicraft and enabling it to produce from the moment it begins its training. I hold that the highest development of mind and the soul is possible under such a system of education. Only every handicraft has to be taught not merely mechanically as is done today, but scientifically, i.e. the child should know the why and the wherefore of every process."
  • This above mentioned short statement of Mahatma Gandhi gives a glimpse of his philosophy of education. He emphasized the overall growth of a child from the beginning to the end. He advocated for women's education as well.


  • All knowledge in the human mind.
  • Education is the manifestation of perfection already in the human mind.
  • Knowledge is inherent in man. No knowledge comes from outside.
  • Like fire in a piece of flint, knowledge exists in the mind. Man discovers it.
  • Laid stress on character development.
  • Considered woman education as an important tool in national integration.
  • Advocated for mass education without any bias on the basis of caste and creed.


Shri Aurobindo talked about getting simple knowledge but different types of knowledge and for that, he advocated for integral education theory. Mahatma Gandhi talked about the holistic development of a child, Tagore in his view was a naturalist who emphasized teaching in a natural environment while Vivekananda laid more emphasis on hidden knowledge in the mind of the child. Hence, option (1) is correct.

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