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With reference to the Gandhara School of Art, consider the following statements:

1. The sculptural tradition in Gandhara had the confluence of Bactria, Parthia and the local Gandhara tradition.

2. The Gandhara art is famous for the portrayal of Buddha in a spiritual state, eyes half-closed in meditation.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


1. 1 only
2. 2 only
3. Both 1 and 2
4. Neither 1 nor 2.

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Correct Answer - Option 3 : Both 1 and 2

The correct answer is Both 1 and 2.

  • The first century CE onwards, Gandhara (now in Pakistan), Mathura in northern India and Vengi in Andhra Pradesh emerged as important centres of art production.
  • Buddha in the symbolic form got a human form in Mathura and Gandhara.
  • The sculptural tradition in Gandhara had the confluence of Bactria, Parthia and the local Gandhara traditionHence, statement 1 is correct.
  • Situated in the crossroads of cultural influences, the Gandhara region was influenced by Greek and Roman culture.
  • During the time of the Kushana Empire, in view of its contact with Rome, the techniques of Roman art were assimilated and applied in northwestern India.
  • The Gandhara art is famous for the portrayal of Buddha in a spiritual state, eyes half-closed in meditation. Hence, statement 2 is correct.

  • During the reign of Kushanas, there was great creative energy when art and literature flourished.
    • This was partly due to royal patronage and partly due to other factors, like the growing ascendancy of Mahayana Buddhism, which allowed the representation of the person of Buddha in human form.
  • The Greek influence led to an Indo-Greek style of sculpture and art commonly referred to as Gandhara art.
    • Statues of Buddha, sculpted particularly in Taxila and the northwestern regions, show him in graceful garments, surrounded by cherubs and leaves inspired by the Greek tradition.

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