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Consider the following about the Peninsular River System.

1. The Peninsular drainage system is older than the Himalayan one.

2. The Chambal, the Sind, the Betwa, the Ken, the Son, originating in the northern part of the Peninsula belong to the Ganga river system.

3. The Narmada and the Tapi are flowing through the rift valley.

4. The Godavari is the largest river in the peninsular river system.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?


1. 1 and 3 only
2. 2, 3 and 4 only
3. 1, 2 and 3 only
4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

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Correct Answer - Option 4 : 1, 2, 3 and 4

The correct answer is 1, 2, 3 and 4.

  • The drainage systems of India are mainly controlled by the broad relief features of the subcontinent. Accordingly, the Indian rivers are divided into two major groups:
  1. the Himalayan rivers; and
  2. the Peninsular rivers

  • The Peninsular River System
    • The Peninsular drainage system is older than the Himalayan one. This is evident from the broad, largely-graded shallow valleys, and the maturity of the rivers. Hence, statement 1 is correct.
    • The Western Ghats running close to the western coast act as the water divide between the major Peninsular rivers, discharging their water in the Bay of Bengal and as small rivulets joining the Arabian Sea.
    • Most of the major Peninsular rivers except Narmada and Tapi flow from west to east.
    • The Chambal, the Sind, the Betwa, the Ken, the Son, originating in the northern part of the Peninsula belong to the Ganga river system. Hence, statement 2 is correct. 
    • The other major river systems of the Peninsular drainage are – the Mahanadi the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri.
    • Peninsular rivers are characterised by fixed course, absence of meanders and nonperennial flow of water.
    • The Narmada and the Tapi which flow through the rift valley are, however, exceptions. Hence, statement 3 is correct.
    • The Godavari is the largest river in the peninsular river system. Hence, statement 4 is correct.

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The Himalayan River System

  • The Himalayan drainage system has evolved through a long geological history.
  • It mainly includes the Ganga, the Indus and the Brahmaputra river basins.
  • Since these are fed both by melting of snow and precipitation, rivers of this system are perennial.
  • These rivers pass through the giant gorges carved out by the erosional activity carried on simultaneously with the uplift of the Himalayas.
  • Besides deep gorges, these rivers also form V-shaped valleys, rapids and waterfalls in their mountainous course.
  • While entering the plains, they form depositional features like flat valleys, ox-bow lakes, flood plains, braided channels, and deltas near the river mouth.

 

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