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Which of the following are the some initial conditions for the emergence of a tropical cyclone:

1. Weak Coriolis force

2. Absence of strong vertical wind wedge

3. Large and continuous supply of warm and moist air

Select the correct answer using the correct codes given below:

1. 1 and 2 only
2. 1 and 3 only
3. 2 and 3 only
4. 1, 2 and 3

1 Answer

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Best answer
Correct Answer - Option 3 : 2 and 3 only

The correct answer is 2 and 3 only.

  • Tropical Cyclone
    • Tropical cyclones are intense low-pressure areas confined to the area lying between 30° N and 30° S latitudes, in the atmosphere around which high-velocity winds blow.
    • Horizontally, it extends up to 500-1,000 km and vertically from surface to 12-14 km.
    • A tropical cyclone or hurricane is like a heat engine that is energized by the release of latent heat on account of the condensation of moisture that the wind gathers after moving over the oceans and seas.
    • There are differences of opinion among scientists about the exact mechanism of a tropical cyclone.
    • However, some initial conditions for the emergence of a tropical cyclone are:
      1. Large and continuous supply of warm and moist air that can release enormous latent heat. Hence, statement 3 is correct.
      2. Strong Coriolis force that can prevent the filling of low pressure at the centre (absence of Coriolis force near the equator prohibits the formation of tropical cyclone between 0°-5° latitude). Hence, statement 1 is NOT correct.
      3. Unstable condition through the troposphere that creates local disturbances around which a cyclone develops.
      4. Finally, absence of strong vertical wind wedge, which disturbs the vertical transport of latent heat. Hence, statement 2 is correct.

  • Structure of Tropical Cyclone
    • Tropical cyclones are characterized by large pressure gradients.
    • The centre of the cyclone is mostly a warm and low-pressure, cloudless core known as eye of the storm. Generally, the isobars are closely placed to each other showing high-pressure gradients.
    • Normally, it varies between 14-17mb/100 km, but sometimes it can be as high as 60mb/100km.
    • Expansion of the wind belt is about 10-150 km from the centre. 
  • Spatio-temporal Distribution of Tropical Cyclone in India
    • Owing to its Peninsular shape surrounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east and the Arabian Sea in the west, the tropical cyclones in India also originate in these two important locations.
    • Though most of the cyclones originate between 10°-15° north latitudes during the monsoon season, yet in case of the Bay of Bengal, cyclones mostly develop during the months of October and November.
      • Here, they originate between 16°-2° N latitudes and to the west of 92° E. By July the place of origin of these storms shifts to around 18° N latitude and west of 90°E near the Sundarban Delta.

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