India conducted a series of nuclear test in May 1996, demonstrating its capacity to use nuclear energy for military purposes. The two primary causes were:-
a. India is surrounded by two hostile neighbors. China was already a nuclear state and we share a border conflict with China since 1962. Since then, China has undertaken many steps that are against India’s national interest. China is a major threat to India’s territorial security and integrity.
b. China’s close friendly relation with Pakistan is also perceived as a major security threat for India. For long, Pakistan was seeking Chinese help in becoming a nuclear state. Pakistan’s hostility against India has always remained a constant security threat for India.
Basic features of India’s Nuclear Policy
a. India professes ‘no first use’ doctrine. India has committed not to initiate a nuclear war against any nation. If India will be attacked by nuclear weapons, then India will certainly retaliate back.
b. India will develop minimum number of required nuclear weapons and will use nuclear energy, as far as possible, for peaceful purposes.
c. India is ready to disarm its nuclear weapons if all other existing nuclear states disarm their nuclear weapons. Therefore, India still believes in horizontal and vertical nuclear disarmament.
d. India has strongly opposed NPT and CTBT. These treaties are regarded as unjust and discriminatory in nature by India.