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State any two theories of social movements.

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Theory of relative deprivation- 

  • Social conflict arises when a social group feels that it is worse off than another around it. 
  • Role of psychological factors such as resentment and rage. 
  • The limitations of this theory are that while perceptions of deprivation may be necessary condition for collective action but not a sufficient reason in themselves. 

The logic of collective action- 

  • Mancour Olson’s book argues that a social movement is an aggregation of rational individual actors pursing their self-interest. 
  • A person will join a social movement only if there was something to be gained from it. 
  • Mcarthy and Zald rejected Olson’s assumptions that social movements are made up of individuals pursuing their self interest 

Resource mobilization theory- 

  • It depends on ability to mobilize resources or means of different sorts. 
  • Critics argue that a social movement is not limited by existing resource. It can create resources such as new symbols and identities. 
  • Scarcity of resources need not be a constraint.
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