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Highlight the state and non-state initiatives addressing caste and tribe discrimination.

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State initiatives- 

  • Reservation of seats in state and central legislatures 
  • Reservation of jobs in government services 
  • Reservation of seats in educational institutions 
  • Abolition of Untouchability – Article 17 
  • Caste Disabilities Removal Act 1850 
  • Scheduled Castes and Scheduled tribes (Prevention of Atrocities Act) 1989 

Non-state initiatives – (movements and struggles) 

  • In pre-independence time efforts made by Jyotibha Phule, Periyar, Ambedkar and others 
  • In contemporary times efforts made by political organisations like Bahujan Samaj Party in UP, Dalit Sangharsh Samiti of Karnataka 
  • Literary contributions creating Dalit awareness specially in Marathi, Tamil Kannada Telugu and Hindi
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