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Colonial rule in India brought about structural changes in the legal, industrial and architectural spheres. Give examples.

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  • Forest acts changed the lives of the pastoralists. They were prevented from entering the forest because the colonial forest policy changed from laissez faire to active intervention. The demand for railway sleepers transformed the forests. 
  • Colonial administrators introduced harsh measures against the labourers by introducing penal sanctions against them in case of non-fulfilment of the contract. The recruitment of labourers was carried out by the Transport of Native Labourers Act 1863. 


  • Deindustrialisation took place because traditional exports of cotton and silk manufactures declined in the face of Manchester competition. 
  • Decline of cities like Surat and Masuliptanam while Bombay and Madras grew. The British took over Indian states like Dhaka and Murshidabad who lost their court gentry and this led to the decline if indigenous artisans and craftspersons. 


  • Job Charnock leased three villages Sutanuti, Kolikata and Gobindapur in order to set up trading posts. Fort William was established for military engagements. 
  • The European town had spacious bungalows, elegant apartments and so on. When domestic water supply, electric connection and sewage links were available the Europeans residents utilised them fully whereas their use was quite restricted to the native town.
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