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What are the various disorders specific to children?

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These disorders, if not attended, can lead to more serious and chronic disorders. 

1. Attention Deficit hyperactivity Disorder- Children who are inattentive find it difficult to sustain mental effort during work or play. They have a hard time keeping their minds on any one thing or in following instructions. Children who are impulsive seem unable to control their immediate reactions or to think before they act. Hyperactivity leads to these children being in in constant motion. The child may fidget, squirm, climb and run around the room aimlessly. Boys are four times more likely to be given this diagnosis than girls. 

2. Oppositional Defiant Disorder- display age-inappropriate amounts of stubbornness, are irritable, defiant, disobedient, and behave in a hostile manner. Unlike ADHD, the rates of ODD in boys and girls are not very different. 

3. Conduct Disorder and Antisocial Behaviour- refer to ageinappropriate actions and attitudes that violate family expectations, societal norms, and the personal or property rights of others. It includes aggressive actions that cause or threaten harm to people or animals, non-aggressive conduct that causes property damage, major deceitfulness or theft, and serious rule violations. 

4. Separation Anxiety Disorder - excessive anxiety or even panic experienced by children at being separated from their parents; difficulty being in a room by themselves, going to school alone, are fearful of entering new situations, and cling to and shadow their parents’ every move. To avoid separation, children with SAD may fuss, scream, throw severe tantrums, or make suicidal gestures. 

5. Depression -. An infant may show sadness by being passive and unresponsive; a preschooler may appear withdrawn and inhibited; a school-age child may be argumentative and combative; and a teenager may express feelings of guilt and hopelessness. 

6. Pervasive Developmental Disorders. These disorders are characterised by severe and widespread impairments in social interaction and communication skills, and stereotyped patterns of behaviours, interests and activities. Autistic disorder or autism is one of the most common of these disorders. Children with autistic disorder have marked difficulties in social interaction and communication, a restricted range of interests, and strong desire for routine.

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